Islamaphobia is a complex phenomenon. It must be seen through the larger context of systemic racism such as anti-Indigenous racism, anti-Black racism and anti-migrant discrimination. Fundamentally, Islamaphobia is an outcome of the socialization of Muslims as an “other” – mostly through targeting the expression of their “Muslimness.” Islamaphobia has been on the rise since 9/11. Under the “war on terror” and the anti-radicalization framework, Muslims were securitized within public, political and media discourses. This normalization process rose to a crescendo around 2011 when it moved from the fringe towards the center as its political utility became evident.
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